2017 Spring Newsletter
Welcome to the first ever newsletter from WastePD! The goal of this EFRC is to explore the commonalities in the degradation of glass, ceramics and metals during exposure to aqueous environments so as to advance the fundamental understanding of the environmental degradation of these different forms of matter that comprise nuclear waste forms and containers.
We have now been in operation for approximately 6 months, and it has been a busy time. Our face-to-face all-hands meeting on December 1 and 2 of last year gave us the chance to learn from each other and plan the details of our work and interactions. WastePD has since been going full bore with the Glass, Ceramics, and Metals Teams moving forward apace, and our Synergistic Interactions giving us the opportunity to explore the commonalities. The WastePD monthly webinar series has covered a range of topics, from experimental methods to fundamental concepts. Thanks to Seong Kim for organizing!
This newsletter contains information about some of what is happening across WastePD. The first ever site-specific cryo FIB liftout of a corroded glass interface, leaching of apatite waste forms, and brand new approaches to the design of corrosion resistant metal alloys – all very exciting! I invite you to read and learn more. Feel free to contact me with any questions.
Congratulations to QuesTek on winning the U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA) 2016 Tibbetts Award
In early January, QuesTek Innovations LLC was invited to the White House to accept the U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA) 2016 Tibbetts Award. This prestigious award is presented to small businesses, organizations and individuals that have demonstrated excellence in leveraging Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) funding to generate measurable impact through technological innovation, technology transfer, business impact and product commercialization. QuesTek was specifically recognized for their unique contributions to the field of Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME) and President Obama’s Materials Genome Initiative.
CEA seeks to better understand water speciation in the passivating layer of ISG
The CEA (French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission) group led by Stéphane GIN is investigating the protective surface layers formed on the six-oxide reference glass called International Simple Glass (ISG). Now they have a better understanding of the speciation of nano-confined water in the passivating layer. In the past few weeks, this group attempted to determine the mobility of the water molecules within the surface layer, as it is believed that it is a key step for the development of a new kinetic model for glass dissolution. For that, they isotopically tagged some water molecules with 18O and monitored their behavior by ToF-SIMS. Results reveal an unexpected behavior associated with anisotropic transport properties.
A new study has started in parallel concerning the modeling of the effects of radiation damages within alteration layers and their consequences on glass dissolution. This work is conducted in collaboration with PNNL. The work on passivating layers now involves contribution from Penn State University and North Texas University.
Wang group at LSU performs long-term leaching studies on apatite Pb5(VO4)3I
The ceramic team at Louisiana State University designs advanced ceramic nuclear waste forms and investigates the long-term performance of the waste forms in geological settings. Their primary focus is to understand the incorporation and release mechanisms of radionuclides in ceramics through modeling and experimental approaches.
129-Iodine ceramic waste form – apatite Pb5(VO4)3I:
Wang group successfully synthesized a 129-Iodine ceramic waste form – apatite Pb5(VO4)3I, and used them in two types of leaching experiments: semi-dynamic leaching with regular solution replacement and static leaching in saturated solution for an extended period of time. In the semi-dynamic test, they immersed a pellet sample in organic pH4 buffer solution at 90°C for 14 days. They found that the iodine release behavior at pH 4 was abnormally lower than that at pH 6, indicating the formation of a secondary phase. In the static leaching experiment, samples were leached in deionized water with no solution replacement at 90°C for 141 days.
For the leached sample at pH 4, SEM/EDS microscopy and Raman spectroscopy indicated the occurrence of chervetite (Pb2V2O7) as a secondary phase precipitated on the sample surface. Secondary phase formation has a significant effect on retarding the iodine release.
For the static leached sample with deionized water, infrared spectroscopy confirmed the existence of hydroxyl group exclusively on the sample surface leached by static test. SEM images also show secondary phase formation of a different morphology. The secondary phase is yet to be fully characterized.
Currently, the Wang group is carrying out four parallel semi-dynamic leaching tests to investigate the effect of different anions on the leaching and release behavior of iodine at 90°C. Four types of salt are used to prepare the brine solution with concentration of 1.0 mol · L-1, which are NaCl, Na2CO3, Na3PO4, and Na2SO4.
Frankel group at OSU develops a novel Ni-based HEA
The Frankel group is focusing on developing a novel Ni-based high entropy alloy (HEA). The team successfully prepared a Ni-based HEA button by the arc-melting method. XRD results indicated that it was single phase with an Face Center Cubic (FCC) crystal structure. Nonhomogeneity was observed by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS), as shown in Figure 1. The as-cast alloy possesses typical dendrites/inter-dendritic structure. They found that the dendrite interiors are enriched in Ru element, and inter-dendritic regions are enriched in Mo and Cr elements. To remove the segregation, the as-cast alloy was annealed at 1100°C and then water quenched. However, the sample was not homogenized, as indicated by X-ray Powder Diffraction (XRD) and EDS analysis. Re-solutionizing the sample at a higher temperature will be the next step.
The corrosion behavior in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution of the as-cast and as-annealed Ni-based HEA samples was investigated. Potentiodynamic polarization studies show that the two samples exhibit similar corrosion resistance, with very high breakdown potential (~ 1.1 VSCE). After polarization, the corrosion morphologies of both samples were examined with optical microscopy. The corrosion morphology suggests a five-stage corrosion evolution process with increasing potential (Figure 2): 1) Transpassive dissolution in inter-dendritic region. 2) Transpassive dissolution within dendrites. 3) Cracking of surface of inter-dendritic regions. 4) Peeling off of “transpassive film” from inter-dendritic regions, leaving fresh surface exposed. 5) Pitting in cracked inter-dendritic regions.
Figure 3 shows the optical corrosion morphology of as-annealed sample. Interestingly, no pitting was observed on the annealed sample. The etched surface is much more uniform than the as-cast sample. As shown in the magnified image (Fig 3b), secondary phases remain intact after polarization. Potential mapping by SKPFM shows that secondary phases are more noble than the matrix. Therefore, the matrix may be preferentially dissolved during transpassive dissolution.
Fig. 3 Optical images of corrosion morphology of the as-annealed sample
Frankel and Scully (along with T. Li) published a short paper (J. Electrochem. Soc. 164 (2017) C18) proposing a new perspective on pitting corrosion in metals that unites two views that have dominated the field over the last several decades. This new perspective is important for guiding the efforts of the Metals Team.
Locke group gets off to a good start
The Locke group at OSU has made a clear plan for their future research, including establishing collaborative experimental plans, purchasing raw materials, machining samples, and acquiring experimental stress corrosion cracking (SCC) equipment (e.g. environmental chamber and appropriate grips). They are collaborating with Sandia National Laboratory to determine atmospheric exposure parameters and begin exposures. They aim to achieve a database of SCC statistics steel alloys to determine if a trend exists between SCC stage II crack growth rate, K1SCC, or time to failure and PREN number.
They have acquired three commercial alloys, which were chosen for experimental investigations: 304H stainless steel, PH 13-8 Mo, and Ni alloy 600. In collaboration with Drs. Eric Schindleholz and Charles Bryan at Sandia National Laboratory, corrosion morphologies as a function of relative humidity, artificial sea salt loading density, temperature, and time are being explored for all alloys. An experimental plan was established to investigate two salt loading densities, two RH and T combinations, and a range of exposure times between 1 week and 24 months. Artificial sea salt will be printed onto the surface of corrosion coupons and tensile samples at Sandia National Labs, beginning with 304H stainless steel in the sensitized and unsensitized condition. Printing and subsequent atmospheric exposure experiments will begin in April 2017. After removal from the environmental chamber at Sandia National Labs, all samples will be sent to OSU for characterization of corrosion morphology and pitting statistics using optical profilometry and cross sectional analysis and SCC testing to determine the effect of corrosion morphology on pit to crack transition. Lastly, a database of SCC stage II crack growth rate, KISCC, and time-to-failure continues to be developed from literature data for alloys with a PREN number. This data will be given to the modeling team for data analysis in an attempt to find trends between SCC resistance and PREN number.
Taylor group applies DFT to study the competitive adsorption on metal surfaces
The density functional theory technique (DFT) has been applied now for ~ 20 years to simulate surface chemistry processes including adsorption of atoms, ions and molecules to various metal surfaces. Such processes are also relevant to corrosion because, fundamentally, corrosion involves the interaction of species like these in the environment with metal surfaces leading to the rearrangement of the surface to form films, or the complexation and removal of surface atoms into solution through dissolution. The films that form may be protective against corrosion if they are compact and present a kinetic barrier to further dissolution. As part of the WastePD program, Taylor’s research group has been investigating the ability to take DFT adsorption energies for atoms, ions and molecules onto metal surfaces and use them as inputs for thermodynamic models to predict the dominant surface states at various conditions of the activities of the ions, temperature, electrochemical potential and pH. To make this connection, two steps were required: (a) relate the adsorption energies from DFT calculations to free energies using a Born-Haber cycle to take into account entropies and enthalpies at room temperature, and (b) using a Langmuir isotherm as a first-order approach to determining the coverage of the ions on the surface. The method so far has been applied to Fe(110), Ni(111), Mg(0001) and Al(111) and in future will be applied to novel corrosion resistant alloy surfaces relevant to parallel investigations going on in the WastePD Metals Team. The method was presented at NACE Corrosion 2017 in New Orleans, March 26-30 and a manuscript is in preparation. As an example, consider Figure 4, which shows that the dominant species on Mg(0001) surface will vary as a function of the Cl- concentration, pH and electrochemical potential. At low (cathodic) potentials the surface is covered with water, at intermediate potentials either or both of chloride or hydroxide will be present and at high (anodic) potentials the surface will be covered with an oxide layer.
The Taylor group is also exploring different models at different length and time scales. They first considered a first principles based study of oxygen on the zirconium surface. Since corrosion resistance is mainly attributed to the formation of a surface oxide layer, developing a detailed understanding of this process is of crucial importance. In this work, a systematic and multi-scale investigation of the early stages of oxide formation is accomplished by first using a database of fully relaxed DFT calculations that was used to build a cluster-expansion description of the potential function. The developed potential was reasonably good at predicting DFT energies as evidenced by the cross-validation score. The effective cluster expansion parameters were indicative of repulsive adsorbate interactions in the adlayer in agreement with the literature. The potential then allowed for a systematic investigation of the oxygen configurations on the Zr(0001) surface via Monte Carlo simulations. The adsorption energy was recorded as a function of coverage and an increasing trend was observed in agreement with DFT predictions and the repulsive nature of interactions in the adlayer. The convex hull diagram was recorded indicating the most stable configuration to occur around a coverage of 0.6 ML. The adsorption isotherm was also recorded and contrasted for two different temperatures relevant for different applications.
In addition, they are considering the implementation of the Poisson-Nernst-Planck model to analyze the physics of corrosion. This model allows them to take the transport of ions and the effects of the electric field into account. Moreover, they are looking into phase field models, which have recently become an attractive and powerful tool for exploring interface properties.
PSU collaborates with CEA to characterize the ISG alteration layer
Kim’s group at PSU, in collaboration with the team at CEA, is studying four different ISG glass samples. Two sets of sum frequency generation (SFG) spectra were collected. ISG glass polished using SiC and the other is polished up to 1 µm diamond paste were studied to provide reference SFG spectra before any corrosion occurs. CEA also supplied ISG glass samples corroded in KCl (30 days) and LiCl (25 days) solutions. The corroded samples have different silicate structure shown through SR-IR taken at the incident angle of 45°. This is shown from the peak shift between different ISG glass samples, especially in the Si-O-Si and B-O stretching vibration peak (Figure 5).
The glass sample corroded in LiCl solution showed a higher concentration of hydrous species (SiOH and H2O) in the altered layer than KCl solution through ATR-IR. (Figure 6).
QuesTek successfully constructed Pourbaix diagrams and phase diagrams for HEAs
Pourbaix diagrams and phase diagrams for the previously-designed HEA compositions were constructed at QuesTek using the CALPHAD method. Pourbaix diagrams predict what oxide film might form on surface of an HEA matrix and thus in turn shed light on what matrix should be designed to obtain a targeted film and correspondingly desired corrosion resistance. Phase diagrams that display stable phase regions as a function of element compostion provide valuable guidance on exploring different HEA compositions in the vast compositional space of HEAs. Various compositions have been defined based on those phase diagrams for future experimental investigations.
Lian group at RPI synthesized a novel ceramic waste form - Cs2SnCl6
Ongoing research on Cs2SnCl6 waste forms from the ceramic team of RPI has yielded encouraging results. The combination of the relatively high thermal stability of Cs2SnCl6 and exceptional mass loadings of the targeted elements Cs and Cl suggests applications may include the disposal of both environmental management waste and salts from the pyroprocessing of used nuclear fuel. Defective perovskite Cs2SnCl6 powders were synthesized using a solution-based approach and consolidated into dense pellets via spark plasma sintering with no decomposition resulting during the sintering process. The dense pellets demonstrated suitable thermal stability, with the onset of decomposition occurring above 600 oC. The fabrication of a water insoluble waste form with high cesium and chlorine content may represent a promising development for the disposal of high level waste.
Results on pyrochlore waste forms for actinide disposal were published in the Journal of Nuclear Materials in the manuscript “Influence of grain growth on the structural properties of the nanocrystalline Gd2Ti2O7”. In this work, the microstructural evolution of nanocrystalline ceramics was investigated, providing understanding of the grain growth mechanisms, which may aid in the design of ceramics tailored for nuclear waste form applications. Combining with the efforts on dense nano-sized iodoapatite for iodine incorporation, this work demonstrates an effective approach in engineering grain structures of waste forms with controlled length scale from micron to nano-meters, enabling mechanistic understanding of the solid-solid interaction through grain boundaries, atomic diffusion and their impacts on materials degradation. Leaching experiments are ongoing to study how different grain structures affect surface alteration and chemical durability.
UVa studied the passivity breakdown properties of a series of CRAs
The team at the University of Virginia is investigating chloride-induced pitting potential characteristics of crystalline NiCrMoW alloys to build a baseline for comparison of HEAs. Passivity breakdown properties including the pitting potential at various chloride concentrations were measured for a series of model crystalline NiCr, NiCrMo, and NiCrMoW alloys. These results will be used as a benchmark against which commercial crystalline Ni- and Fe-based alloys as well as the model HEAs will be compared. These data are also expected to provide information toward determining pit metastability tests.
Immediate future work includes populating this database with the commercial stainless steels 13-8 PH Mo and 304H as well as the commercial Ni-based crystalline Alloy 690.
Experimental Synergy Team Lead Seong Kim Organizes A Series of Experimental Technical Webinars
The unique and yet-to-be-uncovered potential of the WastePD EFRC center is that the center brings a number of advanced experimental capabilities and expertise that are not readily available in individual institutions. Technically, all members in WastePD now have accesse to such advanced characterization tools; but, the situation is that only the people who routinely do such experiments know the full potential of such techniques and most people are not familiar with advanced characterization methods available in other institutions. In order to facilitate discussions among these groups – characterization experts and people who have specific scientific questions but are not familiar with specific analytical techniques – within and across three materials groups, the experimental synergy team has been organizing the webinar series every second Wednesday of the month. So far, the main focus was given to the introduction of experimental techniques and computational methodologies. The topics covered / to be covered in the webinar are as follows:
- January – principle and sample preparation of atom probe tomography (APT) by Dan Schreiber and Daniel Perea (PNNL)
- February – modeling-assisted characterization by Wolfgang Windl (OSU)
- March – principles, capabilities, and limitations of sum frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopy by Dien Ngo (PSU)
- April – an experimental-computational integrated approach to analyze the silicate network vibrations by Seong Kim (PSU)
- May – electrochemistry basics involved in metal corrosion by Jay Srinivasan (UVA)
- June – oxygen speciation in glass surfaces with x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) by Hongshen Liu (PSU)
- July – specular-reflection and attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy (SR-IR and ATR-IR) by Christoper Lim (PSU)
- August – x-ray fluorescence (XRF), x-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES), extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), grazing incidence x-ray diffraction (GIXRD) using the synchrotron source at LSU-CAMD by Dr. Amitava Roy (LSU)
- September - TBA
The webinar series serves the dual purposes – (i) introducing and teaching the basic principles to potential users so they can design new collaborations with experts in the member institutions and (ii) providing lecture opportunities to the junior members (students and postdocs) of expertise groups so they can develop teaching skills.
In April (during the webinar), an official announce will be made soliciting collaboration ideas among research groups across three materials groups as well as computational and experimental groups. The experimental synergy team at PSU will encourage junior members (students and postdocs) to discuss and identify scientific problems and challenges and prepare collaborative research proposals. The senior members (PIs) will provide guidance and critics to the joint proposal writing teams, so they can develop proposal-writing skills. The executive committee will review the proposals and select the priority groups that will receive small incentives which can be used to travel between participating research groups to facilitate collaborations.
PNNL, RPI, and LSU work towards better understanding of iodine leaching
In the effort to understand 129-iodine release behavior from apatite, RPI supplied new ceramic apatite samples synthesized using spark plasma sintering for LSU’s leaching experiments. These ongoing experiments are aimed to understand anionic effects on the iodine leaching behavior.
PNNL is also working closely with RPI and LSU to characterize the apatite samples using electron microscopy as part of the characterization synergy. No evidence of incongruent dissolution or leaching at the surface of the material was found, although they did find some signs of precipitates. It was also found that the material contained up to six different phases with different compositions and/or structures. The findings were backed up by data from RPI, and plans remain to further help characterize corroded materials as needed. PNNL, RPI, and LSU continues working together to identify the secondary phase(s), surface leaching zoning, grain boundaries, impurity phases, using a number of techniques, including APT, FIB/TEM, SEM/EDS, and Raman Spectroscopy.
QuesTek helps OSU for HEA designing
QuesTek has been working closely with OSU on producing HEA samples that will be used for all future experimental investigation within the EFRC. QuesTek is serving mainly a consulting role providing guidance and troubleshooting support while OSU performs the actual sample production work in their facilities. This synergy activity has led to successful production of the Ni-rich HEA at OSU. Besides, QuesTek has been collaborating with Metals Team and Modeling Team on a couple of publications to enhance the impacts of the EFRC on public domain.
Ohio State collaborates with UVa on HEA project
Ni-based HEA samples have been successfully prepared by the Frankel group. The samples, data, and knowledge have been fully shared between OSU and UVa in order to stimulate collaboration and synergy. Researchers from these two institutions will work together to better understand the microstructure and corrosion properties of the newly designed HEA.
Modeling Synergy in Support of Metals Corrosion
Taylor from Ohio State University has presented a talk on the topic of “Theory and Design for Novel Corrosion Resistant Alloys” at NACE Corrosion 2017 co-authored with OSU post-doc Adib Samin, OSU professor Wolfgang Windl, UNT professor Jincheng Du and LSU professor Jianwei Wang. The talk addressed the ways in which multiphysics modeling, including atomistic and kinetic models, can be applied to provide insight into the pre-existing conceptual theories for corrosion of metals and alloys such as repassivation potential, hard-soft acid-base theory, point-defect model, and parting limits. These emerging models will be applied to drive forward the science-based design and evaluation by lifetime prediction of corrosion resistant alloys for waste forms and waste containment.
Locke group work with Sandia National Laboratory on atmospheric corrosion and SCC of canary alloys
Locke group has started a collaboration with Drs. Eric Schindleholz and Charles Bryan at Sandia National Laboratory. They are interested in atmospheric corrosion and atmospheric SCC of SNF waste containers. Therefore, they will be working with Dr. Schindleholz’s lab to collaboratively investigate the progress of atmospheric corrosion morphology, surface electrolyte development and changes, and the effect that changes in corrosion morphology and electrolyte composition have on the initiation of SCC out of corrosion features. Sandia will be printing salts on the surface of corrosion and SCC samples and exposing those samples to controlled atmospheric testing. Sandia and OSU will collaboratively investigate the resulting corrosion morphology. Sandia will investigate the changes in the electrolyte over time. OSU will investigate pit to crack transition after atmospheric corrosion has occurs and while it continues to occur. Salt printing and exposure are scheduled to start in April 2017.
PI’s Locke and Taylor along with their groups are now planning to utilize a new program in Taylor’s group to understand the large amount of data collected for the PREN vs SCC relationship.
QuesTek Organizes the 1st WastePD Design Workshop
In order to share current state-of-the-art understanding of corrosion mechanisms for each use case, culminating in the development of initial system design charts, and develop a unified design plan for corrosion across the three application pillars, QuesTek organized the 1st WastePD design workshop. Senior students and other young investigators were invited to participate in this workshop to facilitate robust discussion and networking between team members. As stated by James Saal from QuesTek, "what this essentially entails is detailing our current mechanistic understanding of corrosion within a process-structure-property framework and, more importantly, using this framework to identify critical gaps in our ability to model corrosion phenomena ", therefore the workshop is an important part of synergy activity across the entire center.
*The workshop has been scheduled on April 13 at QuesTek, 1820 Ridge Ave, Evanston, IL, 60201. For more details, please contact James Saal directly.
Du group at UNT actively collaborates with CEA, PNNL, and PSU
The Du group at University of North Texas is actively collaborating with other WastePD institutions. They are collaborating with CEA on joint experimental/simulation on gel layer structures. They are expecting two papers from this collaboration: one on ISG nuclear waste glass simulations and the other one on water diffusion in nanometer sized pores. Du group also work with PSU on the interfacial water speciation, and surface non-bridging oxygen characterization and comparison. At the same time, the Du group is collaborating PNNL on the simulations of ZrO2 and SnO2 containing nuclear waste glasses. Their previous work has led to one publication, which is currently under review. In the effort to collaborate with ceramic team, Jincheng Du will attend the PACRIM Meeting on Ceramic and Glass Technology in combination with the American Ceramic Society Glass and Optical Materials Division annual meeting in May 21-26, 2017. He will present an invited talk during the conference.
Amreen Jan has started her PhD at the end of 2016. She will be using Molecular Dynamics and Monte Carlo simulations to investigate the effect of radiation damage in glass alteration layers. Amreen’s thesis is supervised by J.M. Delaye (CEA), S. Gin (CEA) and S. Kerisit (PNNL).
Kathleen (Kate) Quiambao joined the Scully group in January 2017 to pursue her PhD in Materials Science and Engineering, working on Fe-based HEAs as part of the WastePD research program. Kate holds an MS in Mechanical Engineering with a concentration: Materials and Manufacturing. from the University of Hawai’i, where she worked on galvanic corrosion of aluminum-coupled metals in both accelerated laboratory-controlled conditions as well as environmental tests in different microclimates with Prof. Lloyd Hihara.
Dr. Priyatham Tumurugoti is a post-doctoral research fellow in the department of Nuclear Engineering at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI). Before joining RPI, he received his PhD in Materials Science and Engineering from Alfred University, NY in 2017. The majority of his research is focused on experimental studies regarding the structure-property relations of ceramic waste form materials. Specific topics of interest include crystallographic analysis using x-ray and neutron scattering, structural effects of Cs incorporation in hollandites and electron microscopic analysis etc. He presently works on leaching behavior of Cs-substituted hollandites and the underlying mechanisms.
Yuanyuan Zhu, a post-doc at PNNL, has signed on to develop the fluctuation electron microscopy (FEM) technique for the EFRC. The FEM technique will be valuable in determining medium-range order in otherwise amorphous corrosion products, giving hints as to their formation and eventual evolution. Yuanyuan has more than 10 years of experience in electron microscopy, focusing on the correlation between atomic structure and material properties.
- Frankel, G. S., Tianshu Li, and J. R. Scully. "Perspective—Localized Corrosion: Passive Film Breakdown vs Pit Growth Stability." Journal of The Electrochemical Society 164.4 (2017): C180-C181.
- Kulriya, P. K., Yao, T., Scott, S.M., Nanda, S., Lian, J., Influence of grain growth on the structural properties of the nanocrystalline Gd2Ti2O7, Journal of Nuclear Materials 487 (2017) 373-379.
- Lu, X., Neeway, R. J., Ryan, J., Du, J., “Effects of Optical Dopants and Laser Wavelength on Atom Probe Tomography Analyses of Borosilicate Glasses”, Journal of American Ceramic Society under review.
- Frankel, G.S., Scully, J.R., Localized Corrosion: "Passive Film Breakdown vs. Pit Growth Stability" CORROSION 2017 Research in Progress, March 28, 2017, New Orleans, LA, USA.
- Scully, J. R., G. S. Frankel, and J. E. Saal. “Some Factors to Consider in the Design of Alloys Optimized for Corrosion Resistance”. CORROSION 2017 Research in Progress, March 28, 2017, New Orleans, LA, USA.
- Taylor, C., Samin, A., Windl, W., Du, J., Wang J., Theory and Design for Novel Corrosion Resistant Alloys. CORROSION 2017 Research in Progress, March 28, 2017, New Orleans, LA, USA.
- Lu, P., Frankel, G.S., Olson, G., Saal, J., Scully, J.R., ICME Design for Corrosion Resistant High Entropy Alloys, CORROSION 2017 Research in Progress, March 28, 2017, New Orleans, LA, USA.
- Wang, J. et. al., Radionuclide Incorporation and Long Term Performance of Apatite Waste Form. 12th Pacific Rim Conference on Ceramic and Glass Technology (PACRIM 12), including Glass & Optical Materials Division Meeting (GOMD 2017). May 21-26, 2017, Waikoloa, Hawaii, USA.